Berean Bible Study Notes

John 13



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This chapter will not take so long to get through - not because it is less important, but because it doesn't have quite as many diverse concepts. John skips quite a few things covered in the other Gospels, such as the whole examination of Jesus (just as the Passover lamb was examined for four days), with the Jewish leadership trying to trick Him with their questions. John, written to believers, skips all that - perhaps because we have already examined Jesus and found Him to be without blemish.

He also skips most of the Lord's Supper discussion and covers in detail something that none of the other Gospels cover at all - the washing of the disciples' feet. In the other Gospels, there is the discussion of the Last Supper, the betrayal of Judas and then a quick jump to the garden of Gethsemane. It's very different in John's Gospel. There are only 21 chapters in John. The last nine of them are about Jesus' last week and of those nine, a full five take place the evening of the Last Supper.

In the Gospel accounts, there are four large discourses of Jesus. Three are in Matthew - The Sermon on the Mount (explaining the true meaning of God's law), the Mystery Parables of the Kingdom (seven parables containing very surprising things about the kingdom) and the Olivet Discourse (end times). This one we're about to cover in John 13-17, usually called "The Upper Room Discourse," is the longest. The "Upper Room Discourse" was not given to the crowds, but to Jesus' disciples, because He loved them.

John 13

John 13:1 (NKJV) Jesus Washes the Disciples' Feet

Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.

2 And supper being ended (other texts read "and during supper," which makes more sense. The Greek is more literally "and supper being." In other words, in the midst of the supper.), the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray Him, 3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He had come from God and was going to God, 4 rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself. 5 After that, He poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded. 6 Then He came to Simon Peter. And Peter said to Him, "Lord, are You washing my feet?"

7 Jesus answered and said to him, "What I am doing you do not understand now, but you will know after this."

8 Peter said to Him, "You shall never wash my feet!"

Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me."

9 Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!"

10 Jesus said to him, "He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you." 11 For He knew who would betray Him; therefore He said, "You are not all clean."

12 So when He had washed their feet, taken His garments, and sat down again, He said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you? 13 You call Me Teacher and Lord, and you say well, for so I am. 14 If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. 15 For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you. 16 Most assuredly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him. 17 If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them.

 

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.

Now before the Feast of the Passover is how John describes the timing of the events that come next. Some people believe that the supper described here is a different event from the Last Supper. However, if you read the full account carefully, it seems fairly obvious that this takes place at the Last Supper - and wasn't that the Passover Feast? Yes - but there's more to it than it would appear. There are different calendars involved, and different ways of determining when days begin. We had a fairly long discussion of this in this study.

The day of the crucifixion is the 14th of Nisan, but this, the evening before, is actually also the 14th of Nisan. (Remember that Jewish days normally begin at sundown). We celebrate the day of the Last Supper as "Maundy Thursday." (Maundy means "command" and refers to the new command that Jesus will give in this chapter) So, was it really Thursday? I'll leave that up to your own study and decision. In the study linked above, there are many articles, arguing for the various days. If this interests you, I encourage you to read more.

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.

Remember, all through John, Jesus kept saying that "His hour had not yet come." Now, it has. All these events - the Triumphal Entry, the rejection of the Jews, the crucifixion - these are His hour. This is why He came, to die.

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.

In just a few hours, Jesus is going to face crucifixion, but instead of looking at that, He takes time to prepare His disciples. These five chapters, John 13 through John 17, show Jesus' love for His own.

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.

2 And supper being ended (or "and during supper,"), the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray Him,

Through the guidance of the Holy Spirit, this is all John says about the Last Supper (other than the betrayal of Judas)!! What happened at that Passover supper is discussed in the other Gospels: Matthew 26:17-35, Mark 14:12-31, Luke 22:7-38.

Matthew 26:17 Now on the first day of the Feast of the Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?"

18 And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house with My disciples."'"

19 So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them; and they prepared the Passover.

20 When evening had come, He sat down with the twelve. 21 Now as they were eating, He said, "Assuredly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me."

22 And they were exceedingly sorrowful, and each of them began to say to Him, "Lord, is it I?"

23 He answered and said, "He who dipped his hand with Me in the dish will betray Me. 24 The Son of Man indeed goes just as it is written of Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born."

25 Then Judas, who was betraying Him, answered and said, "Rabbi, is it I?"

He said to him, "You have said it."

26 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, "Take, eat; this is My body."

27 Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. 28 For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. 29 But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom."

30 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.

 

Mark 14:12 Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they killed the Passover lamb, His disciples said to Him, "Where do You want us to go and prepare, that You may eat the Passover?"

13 And He sent out two of His disciples and said to them, "Go into the city, and a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him. 14 Wherever he goes in, say to the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?"' 15 Then he will show you a large upper room, furnished and prepared; there make ready for us."

16 So His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found it just as He had said to them; and they prepared the Passover.

17 In the evening He came with the twelve. 18 Now as they sat and ate, Jesus said, "Assuredly, I say to you, one of you who eats with Me will betray Me."

19 And they began to be sorrowful, and to say to Him one by one, "Is it I?" And another said, "Is it I?"

20 He answered and said to them, "It is one of the twelve, who dips with Me in the dish. 21 The Son of Man indeed goes just as it is written of Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had never been born."

22 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to them and said, "Take, eat; this is My body."

23 Then He took the cup, and when He had given thanks He gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 24 And He said to them, "This is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many. 25 Assuredly, I say to you, I will no longer drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God."

26 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.

 

Luke 22:7 Then came the Day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover must be killed. 8 And He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat."

9 So they said to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare?"

10 And He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered the city, a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house which he enters. 11 Then you shall say to the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with My disciples?"' 12 Then he will show you a large, furnished upper room; there make ready."

13 So they went and found it just as He had said to them, and they prepared the Passover.

14 When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him. 15 Then He said to them, "With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God."

17 Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, "Take this and divide it among yourselves; 18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes."

19 And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me."

20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you. 21 But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table. 22 And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!"

23 Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing.

24 Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be considered the greatest. 25 And He said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those who exercise authority over them are called 'benefactors.' 26 But not so among you; on the contrary, he who is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he who governs as he who serves. 27 For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table? Yet I am among you as the One who serves.

28 "But you are those who have continued with Me in My trials. 29 And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me, 30 that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel."

Here are a couple of articles that help explain the Passover supper:

CHRIST IN THE PASSOVER

Messiah in the Passover - A Christian Seder Observance

Again, there are many, many links in this study. I encourage you to review it, if you haven't recently.

OK, back to John:

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.

2 And supper being ended, (again, other texts read "and during supper," which makes more sense) the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray Him, 3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He had come from God and was going to God, 4 rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself.

It makes more sense that what happens next is during supper. The other accounts clearly have Jesus identifying His betrayer as part of the supper, and that is after this foot washing. Judas is at this supper, knowing that he is going to betray Jesus. Is this a surprise to Jesus? Of course not. In fact, in just a few verses, Jesus will clearly spell out that it is Judas. So, Jesus, knowing that Judas will betray him that very night, washes his feet anyway. He's giving Judas ample opportunity to repent, still lovingly caring for him.

John 13:2 And supper being ended, ("and during supper") the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray Him, 3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He had come from God and was going to God, 4 rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself.

Now, in the Luke account, there was an argument about who was greatest, after the betrayal of Judas. I'm guessing that Luke may have it out of chronological order (for purposes that fit his Gospel). I'm thinking that this argument was fairly near the beginning of the supper.

Luke 22:24 Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be considered the greatest. 25 And He said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those who exercise authority over them are called 'benefactors.' 26 But not so among you; on the contrary, he who is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he who governs as he who serves. 27 For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table? Yet I am among you as the One who serves.

I think you need to have that last statement of Jesus in mind when you read John 13:3. God the Father had put ALL things into Jesus' hands. He had come from the glory of the Father and would be returning to the glory of the Father. There, Jesus would be truly recognized for all that He is. Yet, for all that, He rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself.

John Courson says, (Courson, J. 2003. Jon Courson's Application Commentary . Thomas Nelson: Nashville, TN):

There is apparently everything provided for washing, but no one has offered to do this humble task. In that country, the roads are dusty, and everyone wears sandals. It usually falls to the lowest servant or slave to wash the feet of family and guests. Yet, here, they seem to have started the meal with dirty feet.

John 13:3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He had come from God and was going to God, 4 rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself. 5 After that, He poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded. 6 Then He came to Simon Peter. And Peter said to Him, "Lord, are You washing my feet?"

7 Jesus answered and said to him, "What I am doing you do not understand now, but you will know after this."

8 Peter said to Him, "You shall never wash my feet!"

Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me."

9 Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!"

10 Jesus said to him, "He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you." 11 For He knew who would betray Him; therefore He said, "You are not all clean."

Jesus, the highest of all, takes on the role of the lowest of all, possibly in response to their argument over who was greater. The People's Bible (Baumler, Gary. The People's Bible: John, Northwestern Publishing House, Milwaukee, 1997) says:

Jesus is certainly setting an example of humble service, as He Himself will point out in a little bit. There's a spiritual side to this also, though. When Jesus says, "He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you," He is showing that He is actually referring to spiritual cleansing - something that happened earlier for most of the disciples. What is that spiritual cleansing? It is referring to belief in Jesus as Savior, to salvation. Yet, not all of them believed in Jesus that way. Why, then, does Jesus say to Peter, who DOES believe, "If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me."?

Our "daily walk" needs to be cleansed. We might have been saved, but we also need to have that ongoing cleansing. We need to acknowledge our sin, confess it and be cleansed from it. John says almost the same thing here:

1 John 1:8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 9 If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make Him a liar, and His word is not in us.

In terms of Jesus' model, we need to acknowledge continually that we have filthy feet! As we walk through this world, we will sin! Yet, when we confess our sin, God is faithful to forgive us and cleanse us. I like how Jon Courson puts it (Courson, J. 2003. Jon Courson's Application Commentary . Thomas Nelson: Nashville, TN):

John 13:12 So when He had washed their feet, taken His garments, and sat down again, He said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you? 13 You call Me Teacher and Lord, and you say well, for so I am. 14 If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. 15 For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you. 16 Most assuredly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him. 17 If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them.

Some churches take this very literally and actually have foot washing services. There's nothing wrong with that, but that is not the essence of what Jesus is trying to get across. Jesus set an example of humble service. There is no one in our churches who should be above doing the most humble service. Yet, in terms of the spiritual aspect of what Jesus has shown, what is He saying? We need to help each other keep our lives washed. We need to point out sin (gently, lovingly) and help people find the ongoing cleansing that Jesus offers. Remember the picture of Lazarus in the grave clothes? He needed help getting unwrapped. He couldn't really do it himself.

Now, step back for a bit and look at the larger picture that John (through the Holy Spirit's guidance) is painting in the last couple of chapters. In John 12, we saw the Triumphal Entry, as Jesus intentionally presented Himself as the King of the Jews at the exact time (or at least time period) specified by Gabriel to Daniel. We saw the rejection of the Jews and the discussion of their blinding/hardening. We saw Gentiles seeking Jesus after the Jews rejected Him, and Jesus saying, in effect, now, this is the way it's going to be. (Remember to pay attention to those "nows" in the Bible. They usually mean that a change of some kind has come.) Then, we jump to this scene with the disciples and the foot washing. Jesus is going to spend a long time discussing how things should be among believers until He returns. So, the very first thing He shows us is that believers will humbly serve each other, helping each other wash from the sin of daily living.

John 13:18 Jesus Identifies His Betrayer

"I do not speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, 'He who eats bread with Me has lifted up his heel against Me.' 19 Now I tell you before it comes, that when it does come to pass, you may believe that I am He. 20 Most assuredly, I say to you, he who receives whomever I send receives Me; and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me."

21 When Jesus had said these things, He was troubled in spirit, and testified and said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me." 22 Then the disciples looked at one another, perplexed about whom He spoke.

23 Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved. 24 Simon Peter therefore motioned to him to ask who it was of whom He spoke.

25 Then, leaning back on Jesus' breast, he said to Him, "Lord, who is it?"

26 Jesus answered, "It is he to whom I shall give a piece of bread when I have dipped it." And having dipped the bread, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. 27 Now after the piece of bread, Satan entered him. Then Jesus said to him, "What you do, do quickly." 28 But no one at the table knew for what reason He said this to him. 29 For some thought, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus had said to him, "Buy those things we need for the feast," or that he should give something to the poor.

30 Having received the piece of bread, he then went out immediately. And it was night.

 

You can compare that to these:

Matthew 26:20 When evening had come, He sat down with the twelve. 21 Now as they were eating, He said, "Assuredly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me."

22 And they were exceedingly sorrowful, and each of them began to say to Him, "Lord, is it I?"

23 He answered and said, "He who dipped his hand with Me in the dish will betray Me. 24 The Son of Man indeed goes just as it is written of Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born."

25 Then Judas, who was betraying Him, answered and said, "Rabbi, is it I?"

He said to him, "You have said it."

 

Mark 14:17 In the evening He came with the twelve. 18 Now as they sat and ate, Jesus said, "Assuredly, I say to you, one of you who eats with Me will betray Me."

19 And they began to be sorrowful, and to say to Him one by one, "Is it I?" And another said, "Is it I?"

20 He answered and said to them, "It is one of the twelve, who dips with Me in the dish. 21 The Son of Man indeed goes just as it is written of Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had never been born."

 

Luke 22:20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you. 21 But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table. 22 And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!"

23 Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing.

John 13:21 When Jesus had said these things, He was troubled in spirit, and testified and said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me."

 

Now, don't picture this quiet supper scene, where everyone is listening intently and hears what Jesus says to John. John asked Jesus privately: leaning back on Jesus' breast, he said to Him, "Lord, who is it?" And, Jesus' answer would have been just as quiet:

John 13:26 Jesus answered, "It is he to whom I shall give a piece of bread when I have dipped it." And having dipped the bread, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. 27 Now after the piece of bread, Satan entered him. Then Jesus said to him, "What you do, do quickly."

Here's the way I picture it. I picture Judas' response coming between verse 26 and 27 of John (Jacqui chronology):

John 13:26 Jesus answered, "It is he to whom I shall give a piece of bread when I have dipped it." And having dipped the bread, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. Matthew 26:25 Then Judas, who was betraying Him, answered and said, "Rabbi, is it I?" He said to him, "You have said it." John 13:27 Now after the piece of bread, Satan entered him. Then Jesus said to him, "What you do, do quickly."

Jesus is totally in charge of timing. If you remember, after Mary had poured ointment over Jesus, Judas had left:

Luke 22:1 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called Passover. 2 And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might kill Him, for they feared the people. 3 Then Satan entered Judas, surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered among the twelve. 4 So he went his way and conferred with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray Him to them. 5 And they were glad, and agreed to give him money. 6 So he promised and sought opportunity to betray Him to them in the absence of the multitude.

Now, Judas knows that he has been found out, so if he's going to do anything, it must be immediately - which suits Jesus' schedule perfectly. The Jews had wanted to wait until after Passover:

Matthew 26:1 Now it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, that He said to His disciples, 2 "You know that after two days is the Passover, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified."

3 Then the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders of the people assembled at the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas, 4 and plotted to take Jesus by trickery and kill Him. 5 But they said, "Not during the feast, lest there be an uproar among the people."

However, Jesus means to FULFILL Passover, which means that He must die at the same time the lambs are being killed. Please go back and check out this study for more on how that all fit together.

Now, no one besides John (and perhaps Matthew who seems to have heard Judas' reply) seems to have heard this exchange, because no one knows what's going on now:

John 13:28 But no one at the table knew for what reason He said this to him. 29 For some thought, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus had said to him, "Buy those things we need for the feast," or that he should give something to the poor.

30 Having received the piece of bread, he then went out immediately. And it was night.

Aren't those last words just so interesting, given how much there is in John about light and darkness?

Now, John includes a little commentary that none of the other Gospel writers do. I have no idea why. In fact, I have no idea why the others don't include the whole "Upper Room Discourse." Maybe it's because it's meant specifically for believers - which certainly applies to this next little part:

John 13:31 The New Commandment

So, when he had gone out, Jesus said, "Now the Son of Man is glorified, and God is glorified in Him. 32 If God is glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and glorify Him immediately. 33 Little children, I shall be with you a little while longer. You will seek Me; and as I said to the Jews, 'Where I am going, you cannot come,' so now I say to you. 34 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another. 35 By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another."

So, Jesus doesn't say anything until Judas leaves. Judas is actually on his way to the Jews to bring them to Jesus, which is why Jesus says, "Now the Son of Man is glorified." He is glorified through being crucified. Events will not be stopped now until they are fully completed. Now, I have no idea all that Jesus is meaning when He says, If God is glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and glorify Him immediately.

John 13:33 Little children, I shall be with you a little while longer. You will seek Me; and as I said to the Jews, 'Where I am going, you cannot come,' so now I say to you. 34 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another. 35 By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another."

This new mandate or command is where the word "Maundy" of "Maundy Thursday" comes from. Tertullian, in about 197 AD, reported that the Romans were amazed at Christian love, "See how they love one another!" Remember that song, "They will know we are Christians by our love, by our love. Yes, they'll know we are Christians by our love."?

I'm not sure if Christians as a whole live up to that, but it was a command - not a suggestion - from Jesus. The word love is agapao, which means love that is totally given over, to love with your whole heart, to love as God loves.

That makes what comes next so very interesting:

John 13:36 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial

Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, where are You going?"

Jesus answered him, "Where I am going you cannot follow Me now, but you shall follow Me afterward."

37 Peter said to Him, "Lord, why can I not follow You now? I will lay down my life for Your sake."

38 Jesus answered him, "Will you lay down your life for My sake? Most assuredly, I say to you, the rooster shall not crow till you have denied Me three times.

 

Peter is claiming to love Jesus as He had just commanded, but Jesus knows better. Here are the other accounts:

Luke 22: 31 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial

And the Lord said, "Simon, Simon! Indeed, Satan has asked for you, that he may sift you as wheat. 32 But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren."

33 But he said to Him, "Lord, I am ready to go with You, both to prison and to death."

34 Then He said, "I tell you, Peter, the rooster shall not crow this day before you will deny three times that you know Me."

 

Matthew 26:31 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial

Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written:

'I will strike the Shepherd, And the sheep of the flock will be scattered.' 32 But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee."

33 Peter answered and said to Him, "Even if all are made to stumble because of You, I will never be made to stumble."

34 Jesus said to him, "Assuredly, I say to you that this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times."

35 Peter said to Him, "Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You!"

And so said all the disciples.

 

Mark 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial

Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written: 'I will strike the Shepherd, And the sheep will be scattered.'

28 "But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee."

29 Peter said to Him, "Even if all are made to stumble, yet I will not be."

30 Jesus said to him, "Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times."

31 But he spoke more vehemently, "If I have to die with You, I will not deny You!"

And they all said likewise.

And, we know what happens. Peter denies Jesus three times, just a few hours later. He didn't really "agapao" Jesus. Later in the Gospel of John, we see where Jesus restores Peter to the position of Apostle. We entirely miss what's going on when we just see it in English:

John 21:15 Jesus Restores Peter

So when they had eaten breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love (agapao) Me more than these?"

He said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I love (phileo) You." (Notice that Peter is a whole lot less bold and a whole lot more truthful this time. He knows he cannot love as God loves. But, he can love with brotherly love.)

He said to him, "Feed My lambs."

16 He said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love (agapao) Me?"

He said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I love (phileo) You."

He said to him, "Tend My sheep."

17 He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love (phileo) Me?" Peter was grieved because He said to him the third time, "Do you love (phileo) Me?"

And he said to Him, "Lord, You know all things; You know that I love (phileo) You."

Jesus said to him, "Feed My sheep. 18 Most assuredly, I say to you, when you were younger, you girded yourself and walked where you wished; but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where you do not wish." 19 This He spoke, signifying by what death he would glorify God. And when He had spoken this, He said to him, "Follow Me."

Jesus commands "agapao" but Peter is not able to give that level of love, even to Jesus. So, Jesus says, "Phileo Me." Later, when Peter understands that even "phileo love" isn't easy, he will write:

2 Peter 1:3 (NIV) His divine power has given us everything we need for life and godliness through our knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and goodness. 4 Through these he has given us his very great and precious promises, so that through them you may participate in the divine nature and escape the corruption in the world caused by evil desires.

5 For this very reason, make every effort to add to your faith goodness; and to goodness, knowledge; 6 and to knowledge, self-control; and to self-control, perseverance; and to perseverance, godliness; 7 and to godliness, brotherly kindness (phileo love) ; and to brotherly kindness (phileo love), love (agapao love). 8 For if you possess these qualities in increasing measure, they will keep you from being ineffective and unproductive in your knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.

We have two more sessions of Bible study this school year. Next time, I'm going to do my best to have two chapters for you, John 14 & 15. Then, the following time, we'll have John 16 & 17. That will finish the Upper Room Discourse.